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  1. Popular foreign Varieties of Mango

    March 4, 2011 by Dr Jain

    Mangoes are deservingly considered as a King of all fruits and it has got the reputation of world’s most popular fruit. Mango are widely cultivated and enjoyed in more than one hundred countries. As per the stats of FAO of UN, the top five mango producing countries across the world includes India, China, Thailand, Pakistan and Mexico. Mango trees thrive well in a warm and tropical climate. The domestic production of Mango in US is limited to Hawaii, Florida and parts of California. The majority of mangoes in US are imported from other countries for consumption. The major suppliers of mango include Mexico, Guatemala, Peru Ecuador, Brazil, and Haiti.

    Some of the common varieties available in US and other foreign countries include the following.




    Ataulfo –  It is compact variety of Mango as it has a kidney-shaped form. The skin of Mango turns from green to a deep golden yellow when it is completely ripened. The inside of Mango is velvety smooth and it has no fibrous texture. It has a thinner pit and very sweet taste. It is available from March through July.




    Haden – Haden Mangoes are medium and round mangos that appears oval-round in shape. Haden mangoes look yellow followed by a red-orange colour when it gets ripened. The pulp of Haden mango is juicy and yellow. It is also sweet in flavour and consists of moderate fibre.  It is available from March through June.

    Tommy Atkins



    Tommy Atkins – It is the hugely popular variety of mango that has large, oblong shape and possess green skin with hues of red.  They are characterized by firm and juicy flesh along with smaller pit and moderate fibre. They possess a strong and pleasant scent. They are available from February  through July.




    Kent – Kent is a large fruit that is primarily green in colour on outside and it has an occasional red blush. They have smooth flesh with minimal to mild fibre. They are juicy with a sweet and rich flavour. It is available from June through August.

  2. Popular Indian Varieties of Mango

    March 4, 2011 by Dr Jain

    Alphonso- Alphonso is regarded as the King of Mango and it is widely popular for its warm sweet aromatic flavour. The variety of Mango is considered to be one of the best mango varieties available in the world. Alphonso was named after a Portuguese naval officer Alfonso De Albuquerque who brought mangoes on his journey to Goa. It is produced chiefly in western India including Maharashtra, Gujarat, and Karnataka. It is also called as Hapoos in Marathi, and Aapoos in Karnataka. The major exports of Alphonso takes place from Ratnagiri (Maharashtra) and the best quality is found in Devgad in konkan region. It weighs between 150gm to 300gm and it grows in length till 5-6 inches. Alphonsoes look oval in shape and is pulpy with large seed. It has a characteristic golden yellow colour skin.

    Bombay Green- Bombay Green is chiefly grown in north India and it is also called as Malda, and Shehroli in northern Indian states. It is ripened earlier than other varieties and that makes it a popular in trade markets. It has got rich aromatic flavour and oval oblong shape. It has characteristic spanish green colour of Skin.

    Chausa –  Chausa is the mouth- watering variety that is produced in north Indian region. The cultivating areas of Chausa are the same as Bombay Green. Chausa is largely exported to European countries. This fruit is little larger with weight over 300 gms. Chausa gets preference over other export quality mango varieties as it got thick golden yellow skin, large shelf life and strong aromatic taste.

    Dasheri- It is a north Indian variety and referred as a table purpose quality. It is renowned for its   fibre-less pulp that can be cut into fine slices. The taste of the fruit is delicate and it has a round oval shape. The fruit is grown across UP, Punjab and Haryana.  The colour of the fruit is yellow to greenish and it has got a soft sweet taste.

    Langra- Langra is the prominent variety of mango grown in various regions of world. In India, it is produced chiefly in northern region including UP, Haryana, Bihar and West Bengal.  The best quality of Langra comes from Patna region of Bihar. This fruit is medium to large size that weighs 200gm to 300gm. Langra is a juicy variety with a very sweet taste. It has fibre less pulp and taste delicious. It has also got thin green skin.

  3. Selecting Mangoes

    March 4, 2011 by Dr Jain

    Mangoes are grown extensively in subtropical climates. The orange flesh of Mango is not only sweet and it also adds great flavour to fruit salads, or ice cream. Those mangoes that are harvested too early contain a bitter taste while the mangoes which are too ripe have an unpleasant texture. One needs to learn to select a ripe and flavoured mango. Being one of the expensive fruits available in the market, selecting a proper mango becomes absolutely essential.

    Before purchasing the mango, you should pick a mango and try gently squeezing it. You will observe that a ripe mango will yield slightly so as to release pressure from the fingers. You should tend to avoid mangoes that are too hard as it will take a long time for them to ripe.  You should avoid mangoes that are soft as they are already past their peak. You should examine the skin of Mango and it can be in any colours including green, yellow, or red colour.  Mostly mangoes will show a combination of these colours.  The colour of mango does not give any indication about its ripeness. However, some varieties of mango get yellow when they ripen.

    If you see some black spots on the skin of Mango then it indicates that the fruit is already riped.  The wrinkled appearance on Mango indicates that the fruit has been harvested too early and it may not be sweet. You should try to smell the mango as ripe mangoes possess a sweet fragrance. However, you should not get carried away by its skin texture and firmness.  You should not select the mangoes that have a sour or alcoholic smell. When you purchase the mango, they would be hard and needs to be completely ripened prior to eating.  You should leave the mangoes in cool room temperature till their flesh is yielding.

  4. Usage of Mango in Cuisine

    March 3, 2011 by Dr Jain

    There is wide variety of uses of Mango in Cuisine. The sour, unripe mangoes are commonly used in the preparation of chutneys, pickles, or any other side dishes. The taste of unripe mango is such that it may be consumed raw with salt, chilli, or soy sauce. It is used in the preparation of a summer drink called as panna that offers relaxation from high summer temperature.

    Ripe mangoes are typically eaten fresh as they are very sweet with attractive fragrance. Apart from eating fresh, there are many uses of ripe mangoes in culinary. The Mango Lassi is a famous drink that is prepared across the South Asia. It is prepared by mixing ripe mangoes pulp along with yogurt and sugar. There are various curries preparations that make use of Ripe mangoes. The Mango juice is prepared from the Mango pulp with sugar or milk is widely consumed across the world as Aamras.  It can be consumed along with the bread.

    The Mangoes are also used in the preparation of preservatives like pickles, moramba, amchur (dried and powdered unripe mango) and others. The spicy mustard-oil pickle of mango is highly popular. The Ripe mangoes are usually cut into various shapes for eating. The fruit is used in the preparation of cereal products like muesli and oat granola.

    The unripe mangoes are usually eaten with bagoong in the Philippines. It can also be consumed with fish sauce or with dash of salt. The dried strips of ripe mango along with seedless tamarind to prepare the Mangorind are also famous. The mangoes are used as a flavouring agent and it is a major ingredient in ice cream and various drinks. It is also used commonly in preparation of raspados, fruit bars, aguas frescas, pies and sweet chilli sauce. There are many recipes that uses mango with spicy chilli paste.

  5. Mango Interesting Facts

    March 3, 2011 by Dr Jain

    (6) Mangos are full of many protective nutrients. The vitamin content of Mango depends on its variety and maturity of the fruit. The green mango contains high amount of vitamin C and when it gets ripened the amount of beta carotene (Vitamin A) increases.

    (7) India is the leading producer of mango and it exports a very little amount of its production as majority of them are consumed within the country. There are more than 20 million metric tons of mangos that are grown across the tropical and sub-tropical world. Other leading producers of Mango include Mexico, China, Pakistan, Indonesia, Thailand, Nigeria, Brazil, and others.

    (8) The fruit of the mango consists of the Mesocarp that forms the edible fleshy part and endocarp that forms the large woody and flattened pit. The mango is a member of the Anachardiaceae family that also includes Jamaica plum, cashew, pistachio, poison ivy and poison oak.

    (9) There are more than 1,000 known mango cultivars that can be produced from two strains of mango seed including monoembryonic (single embryo) and polyembryonic (multiple embryo).  The Indian variety of Mango is Monoembryonic while the polyembryonic belongs to Indochinese.

    (10) The resinous latex sap of Mango can lead to Dermatitis when it comes in contact with the body. It is secreted at a time of mango harvesting. The fruit skin of mango is not edible.

    (11) Every part of the mango fruit can be used in fold remedies in one way or the other.  The bark, leaves, skin of Mango are used in the preparation of various types of treatments or preventatives from the ancient time. Some of the medicinal properties of the mango tree and fruit are used in the preparation of many medicines like anti-septic, cardiotonic, laxative, anti-asthmatic, anti-viral, anti-parasitic, contraceptive, aphrodisiac, hypotensive, anti-tussive (cough), expectorant, and many others.

    (12) The Mangiferin is found in the stem bark that has potent immune-modulatory characteristics and is rich in splenocytes that inhibits growth of tumour in early and late stages.

  6. Mango Interesting Facts – Part 1

    March 3, 2011 by Dr Jain

    The mango is regarded as the ‘king of fruit’ across the world and there are various interesting facts about Mango.

    (1)The name ‘mango’ is originated from the Tamil word ‘mangkay’ or ‘man-gay’.  Portuguese traders adopted the name as ‘manga’ for the mangoes when they established in Western India.

    (2) The origination of Mangos it tracked back to East India, the Andaman Islands and Burma. As per ancient legend of eastern India, Lord Buddha had repose the tranquillity found by him in mangoes. Buddhist monks had introduced the mango to Malaysia around 5 BC. Mango was introduced to middle- east and Africa by Persian Traders. It was later spread to Brazil and the West Indies. The arrival of Mango cultivars in Florida and California took place in 18th century.

    (3)The Mango tree is treated with great respect in Indian Folklore and it plays a sacred role in Indian life and culture. It represents love and people believe that it can fulfil the wishes. It is a common practise to hand the fresh mango leaves at the front door during festivals like Hindu New Year and Diwali.  Mango leaves are considered to be auspicious and in weddings they are used for ensuring that the couple bear lots of children.

    (4) Mangoes has been regarded as highly by the ancient rulers and kings. In fact, majority of the Southeast Asian kings and nobles used to have their own mango groves and they cultivate the private cultivars as a symbol of pride and social standing. It was a well known custom of sending the mangoes as gift.

    (5) Mango buds were used to chew by Tahis as it is believed that it imparts sweetness to the voice. It is not advised to burn the mango wood or its leaves as it produces toxic fames that may cause irritation to eyes and lungs.

  7. Nutrients and Phytochemicals of Mango

    March 3, 2011 by Dr Jain

    The Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz) of Mango includes the following.

    Energy 272 kJ (65 kcal)

    Carbohydrates 17.00 g

    Fat          0.27 g

    Protein                 0.51 g

    Sugars   14.8 g

    Dietary fiber       1.8 g

    In addition to these, Mango contains various Vitamins, minerals in varying quantities.

    Mango is rich in lots of phytochemicals and nutrients. The fruit pulp of Mango is high in vitamin C, polyphenols, prebiotic dietary fiber, and provitamin A carotenoids. Mango also possesses necessary vitamins and dietary minerals. The antioxidant vitamins A, C and E forms 25%, 76% and 9% of the DRI (Dietary Reference Intake) in a 165 grams serving.  Mango also contains Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine, 11% DRI), vitamin K (9% DRI), and other B vitamins. In addition to these, other essential nutrients provided by Mango includes potassium, copper and zinc. Moreover, it also contains 17 amino acids in good proportions.

    Mango peel and pulp comprises of phytonutrients, like the pigment antioxidants (carotenoids and polyphenols) and omega-3 and -6 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Mango peel contains pigments with antioxidant properties including carotenoids (beta-carotene, provitamin A compound, lutein and alpha-carotene); polyphenols (gallic acid, caffeic acid, quercetin, kaempferol, catechins, tannins, and xanthone and mangiferin,) and any such compound that counteract free radicals in different disease processes as shown in preliminary research.  The Phytochemical and nutrient content usually vary across the mango species.

    There are over 25 different carotenoids that have been separated from mango pulp. The densest carotenoid present in mango pulp is beta-carotene and it is responsible for the yellow-orange pigmentation of the majority of mango species. The Peel and leaves of mango have major polyphenol content including xanthones, mangiferin and gallic acid.

    The mango triterpene, lupeol has been proven to be an effective inhibitor of prostate and skin cancers in laboratory models. Vimang is an extract of mango branch bark that contains numerous polyphenols with antioxidant properties in vitro and on blood specification of elderly humans.

  8. Mango Hybrid Varieties

    March 2, 2011 by Dr Jain

    There are various hybrid varieties of Mango prepared by different institutes and universities after doing their research. Some of the famous Hybrid varieties of Mango plant are as mentioned below.

    Mallika – This hybrid is the result of cross between Neelam and Dashehari. The fruits of Mallika variety are medium sized with cadmium colours and good quality.

    Amrapali – This hybrid results from the cross between Dashehari and Neelam. It is a dwarf plant with vigorous nature and bears fruit late. It produces 16 t/ha yields on an average and one hectare can accommodate about 1600 plants.

    Mangeera – This hybrid variety results from the cross between Rumani and Neelam. This is a semi vigorous that has a regular bearing habit. The fruits of Mangeera are medium in size and it has light yellow coloured skin with firm and fibreless flesh. It is also very delicious and sweet in taste.

    Ratna – This hybrid variety is a cross between Neelam and Alphonso. The plant is a regular bearer and usually free from any spongy tissue. The fruits of the tree are of excellent quality and medium in size. It looks deep orange in colour and the flesh of the fruit is fibreless.

    Arka Aruna : This hybrid variety is cross between Banganapalli and Alphonso that bears fruit regularly and is dwarf in stature. It can accommodate about 400 plants per hectare. The size of fruits is large and it has attractive skin colour. The pulp of fruit is fibreless and is sweet in taste.

    Arka Puneet : This is a hybrid between Alphonso and the Banganapalli. This plant is a regular and prolific fruit bearing. The fruits of this variety are medium in size and posses attractive skin colour. The pulp of fruit is free from fibre and very sweet in taste.


  9. Health benefits of Mango

    March 2, 2011 by Dr Jain

    There are numerous health benefits of Mango. It is regarded as a comfort food and makes the person feel better by its delicious taste, attractive fragrance and awesome look.  Apart from rich in vitamins, minerals and anti oxidants, Mango contains an enzyme that soothes the stomach and it is similar to Papain enzyme found in papayas. These comforting enzymes provide good digestive aid and generate the feeling of contentment among the eaters. Mangoes easily make the person tempting.

    Mango acts as an excellent tenderizing agent in its unripe green and ripe form. It is because of the presence of these enzymes. It makes an ideal fruit to be included in any marinade. In India,Amchur is prepared by using sour mango powder that contains ground up green mangos. This Amchur is a good seasoning and tenderizing aid.

    Apart from being great in its nutritional value, it is also a good source of fibre in our diets. One can get keep away the problems related to constipation, piles and ulcers by eating one mango daily.  The dietary fibre has a protective effect against various degenerative diseases related to heart. This fibre also assists in preventing various types of cancer and in lowering blood cholesterol levels. A mango of average size can result in up to 40% of daily fibre requirement.  The medicinal properties of the parts of Mango tree are widely utilised in the treatment of a large number of diseases in Ayurved.

    Mangos are also a great source of replenishing the lost potassium. It is deliciously rich in anti-oxidants, potassium and fibres. Mango is truly regarded as a King of Fruit. Mangos are also great source of Vitamins A and C. It also contains Potassium and beta carotene. They form a good staple for daily diet. Mangos are high in fibre content but they are low in calories, fat and sodium.


  10. Mango Cultivars

    March 2, 2011 by Dr Jain

    There are hundreds of Mango cultivars that exist today and many cultivars are crossed for improving pollination. A majority of desired cultivars are mono-embryonic in nature and they should be propagated either by grafting or they do not breed successfully.  The most common (mono-embryonic) cultivar of mango is Alphonso and it is widely exported Mango across the world. The production of cultivar depends a lot on the type of climate and it may happen that a cultivar that grows well in one climate might fail to grow in other places.

    Presently the world market is ruled by the cultivar Tommy Atkins that refers to a seedling of Haden that was cultivated in 1940 in Southern Florida.  In fact, about 80% of mangoes in UK supermarkets are Tommy Atkins. This cultivar is favoured for its fibrous flesh and sweet taste. It is popular for its outstanding productivity, disease resistance ability, appealing colour, transportability, size and shelf life. Tommy Atkins is widely used in the US along with other cultivars like Kent, Madame Francis,  Keitt, and the Mexican grown Champagne.

    The southern Florida has some small gardens in urban areas that promote the dwarf mango trees. The “condo mangoes” is cultivated by the Fairchild Tropical Botanic Garden and this mango tree grows at a height below 2–2.5 m.  A Condo Mango Tree is famous in being dwarfed and small in size. It was appropriate for the container growing in condominiums. “Condo” refers to a smaller variety of tree that is dwarf in nature or one that is maintained to a smaller size with proper  foliage pruning and root pruning.

    Some examples of the cultivars are mentioned below:

    India: Badami,  Bangalora, Banganapalli, Bombay, Bombay Green, Cheruku Rasalu, Chinna Rasalu, Pedda Rasalu, Dusehri, Alphonso,Totapuri, Langra Benarsi, Jehangir, Kalami, Kesar, Kishen Bhog, Amrapali and others

    US: Alampur Baneshan, Alice, Alphonso, Anderson, Angie,Tommy Atkins, Glenn, Gold Nugget, Golden Lippens, Graham, Haden, Hatcher, and others

    Australia: Haden, Irwin, Keitt, B74, Brooks, green eating, Kensington Pride, Kent and others