Mango (Magnifera indica) is the widely popular and leading fruit crop of India. It is also regarded as the king of fruits. It offers delicious taste, striking fragrance and exceptional flavour. Moreover it has good nutritional value as it is rich in vitamin A&C. The mango tree is hard in nature and can be maintained at comparatively affordable costs. The cultivation of mango is done prominently in Indian sub continent. The Mango occupies approx 22% of the total area under fruits with 1.2 million hectares area of cultivation. The total production of mango is around 11 million tonnes and the major mango producing states of India include Uttar Pradesh and Andhra Pradesh that makes up of 25% of total mango producing area. Apart from these, other states that produce mangoes include Karnataka, Bihar, Kerala and Tamil Nadu.
The cultivation of Mango tree is done under both tropical and sub-tropical climate. It can be cultivated on various surfaces including the sea level to 1400 m altitude where there is no high humidity, rain or frost at the time of flowering. The ideal conditions for the cultivation of mango include good rainfall and dry summer. One should ensure that mango cultivation area is not prone to winds and cyclones as it may results in flower and fruit shedding. The cultivation of Mango can be done on a wide range of soils that range from alluvial to laterite provided they are well drained and deep. The ideal soils for mango cultivation are slightly acidic soils with pH in range of 5.5 to 7.5.
There are nearly over thousand varieties of mango in India, however only few varieties are grown abundantly in different states such as Alphonso, Neelam, Banganpalli, Dashehari, Himsagar, Kesar, Kishen Bhog, Langra, Mankhurd, Fazli, Bombai, Bangalora, Samarbehist, Chausa, Bombay Green, Mulgoa, Fernandin, Vanaraj, Zardalu and Suvarnarekha.